Ventolin (Salbutamol)

$ 111.94$ 184.89

Category: Allergy Relief
Commercial name: Ventolin
Active ingredient: Albuterol
Production form: Pills
Available dosage: 2 mg, 4 mg

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Description

Ventolin (Salbutamol). Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions

Ventolin (Salbutamol) is an active ingredient from the group of beta-2 sympathomimetics, which is often used to treat asthma and COPD.

Because of its relaxing effect on the respiratory muscles, salbutamol is also known as a bronchospasmolytic. Typical areas of application are asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) .

 

How Ventolin (Salbutamol) works

Salbutamol stimulates the beta-2 adrenoceptors in the respiratory muscles. This causes a sustained relaxation of the smooth muscles in the bronchi. Salbutamol also has an anti-inflammatory effect. Salbutamol is inhaled for the immediate treatment of shortness of breath associated with asthma. With this form of application, the effect sets in within seconds. The effect of drops or slow-release tablets, on the other hand, is delayed.

In addition, salbutamol increases the fibrillation movements of the cilia and thus supports mucociliary clearance in obstructive lung diseases. This will make it easier to cough up phlegm.

Because of its respiratory and anabolic properties Salbutamol belongs to the doping agents. It is forbidden in competitive sports.

 

Pharmacokinetics

When administered orally or as an inhalation spray, salbutamol is rapidly and completely absorbed, with between 10 and 20% being taken up directly via the lungs and the remainder being swallowed. Much of the active ingredient absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract undergoes first-pass metabolism to phenolic sulfate. About 10% is bound to plasma proteins. The half-life is four to six hours, with a maximum plasma concentration after three to five hours. Salbutamol is metabolized in the liver and then excreted through the kidneys.

 

Dosage of Ventolin (Salbutamol)

Inhalation:

The dosage of salbutamol depends on the type and severity of the disease.

A single dose of 0.1 mg salbutamol is inhaled for the acute treatment of sudden bronchial spasms and attacks of shortness of breath.

If the shortness of breath has not improved noticeably 5 to 10 minutes after inhaling the first single dose, a further single dose can be used.

If a severe attack of shortness of breath is not resolved by a second single dose, further single doses may be necessary. In these cases, medical help must be sought immediately.

Oral use:

Babies from 2 to 23 months:

0.1–0.2 mg/kg body weight as a single dose; Maximum daily dose: 0.3–0.6 mg/kg body weight

Children: 2 to 6 years:

Maximum single dose: 1.0–2.0 mg; Maximum total daily dose: 4.0-8.0 mg.

The single dose must not exceed 1.0-2.0 mg and the total daily dose must not exceed 4.0-8.0 mg salbutamol.

Children: 7 to 13 years:

Maximum single dose: 1.0–2.0 mg; Maximum total daily dose: 4.0-8.0 mg.

The single dose must not exceed 1.0-2.0 mg and the total daily dose must not exceed 4.0-8.0 mg salbutamol.

Adolescents from 14 years and adults:

Maximum single dose: 4.0 mg; Maximum total daily dose: 12.0-16.0 mg

Intravenous application:

Bronchospasm, status asthmaticus:

Adult:

  • sc, im injection: 8 µg/kg, possibly repeat every 4 hours
  • iv injection: 4 µg/kg, repeat if necessary
  • iv infusion (status asthmaticus): initially 5 µg/min., then 3-20 µg/min; maybe more

preterm labour

Therapy duration maximum 48 hours!

  • IV infusion: 10 µg/min initially, increase at 10-minute intervals if necessary, maintain 10-45 µg/min, after contractions subside maintain infusion rate for 1 h, then decrease by 50% at 6-h intervals
  • IV, IM: 100-200 µg; possibly repeat

Side effects of Ventolin (Salbutamol)

The most common side effects are taste disturbances and administration site discomfort, fine tremor, nausea, sweating, restlessness, headache and dizziness. They usually resolve within one to two weeks after the start of treatment.

Central nervous stimulation such as hyperexcitability, hyperactivity, sleep disorders and hallucinations have also been observed in children and adolescents.

Other side effects are listed below in order of frequency:

Often

  • muscle tremor
  • headache
  • tachycardia.

Occasionally

  • palpitations
  • Irritation in the mouth and throat
  • muscle cramps.

Rarely

  • hypokalemia
  • Peripheral vasodilation.

Very rare

  • Hypersensitivity, including angioedema, urticaria , pruritus, bronchospasm, hypotension and collapse
  • lactic acidosis
  • hyperactivity
  • Cardiac arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation , supraventricular tachycardia and extrasystoles
  • paradoxical bronchospasm.

Side effects with unknown frequency

  • hyperglycemia
  • Increase in blood levels of insulin
  • nervousness
  • sleep disorders
  • hallucinations
  • dizziness
  • myocardial ischemia
  • rise or fall in blood pressure
  • Discomfort in the mouth and throat area
  • Cough
  • Sweat
  • myalgias.

Interactions

The number of drug interactions is diverse:

  • Xanthine derivatives, steroids or diuretics => risk of hypokalemia
  • non-selective beta- receptor blockers => risk of severe bronchoconstriction and reduced effectiveness
  • Antidiabetics => reduced blood sugar lowering effect
  • Digitalis glycosides => increased risk of side effects
  • Sympathomimetics => mutual enhancement of effects and increased risk of side effects
  • Levodopa , L-thyroxine , oxytocin , alcohol => altered cardiovascular regulation
  • Ergot alkaloids => interactions on the vasomotor system that are difficult to predict => risk-benefit analysis necessary
  • MAO inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants => enhanced effect of salbutamol on the cardiovascular system
  • Procarbazine => hypertension
  • halogenated anesthetics such as halothane , methoxyflurane , enflurane => increased risk of severe cardiac arrhythmia and hypotension.

Contraindication

If there is hypersensitivity to the active substance, treatment with salbutamol should be avoided. Since salbutamol can increase performance, it can lead to positive doping controls.

Salbutamol must not be used concomitantly with other beta-2 sympathomimetics due to the possibility of severe bronchospasm.

 

Pregnancy/breastfeeding

Salbutamol crosses the placenta and can pass into breast milk. To date, no teratorogenic effects are known. Nevertheless, to be on the safe side, the active ingredient should only be used in the first trimester of pregnancy and when breastfeeding after careful benefit-risk assessment.

 

Driving ability

Different side effects can occur individually, which can affect the ability to drive and use machines.

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Additional information

Dosage

2 mg, 4 mg

Quantity

30, 60, 90, 120, 180

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